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Comprehensive guides on hundreds of diseases and conditions from Mayo Clinic experts. Read "Mayo Clinic A to Z Health Guide Everything You Need to Know About Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention" by The Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic A to Z Health Guide book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. The best weapon against any condition is knowledge. Learn.
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Solutions are explained For example, the odds of having apathy were 7. The same observations hold true for aMCI persons in our secondary analyses, i. Furthermore, we additionally adjusted the analyses for global cognition z-score to see whether this would impact the findings. Overall, our results were in line with our hypothesis that the combined presence of cognitive impairment and elevated brain amyloid deposition is associated with greater odds of having NPS as compared to MCI without amyloid deposition.
Our findings should also be interpreted within the context of published literature.
We and others have previously reported cross-sectional associations between NPS, particularly depression, anxiety, and apathy, with increased amyloid deposition in cognitively normal 6 , 8 or cognitively impaired persons 10 , 11 , whereas few studies found no association 9 or only in subgroup analyses 7.
To our knowledge, there is only a limited number of cross-sectional studies that examined the association between NPS and cortical amyloid in both cognitively normal and cognitively impaired persons. French researchers reported that, in a sample comprised of CU persons as well as MCI and AD patients, anxiety and irritability were associated with higher cortical amyloid deposition in various regions of interest; the number of significant correlations was reduced in subgroup analyses among MCI or AD only Similarly, researchers from UCLA observed that the relationship between depression and anxiety with amyloid deposition varied between cognitively normal and MCI persons, i.
However, these studies differ from ours in various ways, i. Our study is also in line with a recently published longitudinal study from Harvard Medical School reporting that higher amyloid beta burden was associated with increasing anxious-depressive symptoms over time in cognitively normal older individuals The strengths of our study are the large-scale, population-based sample and the rigorous acquisition of NPS using three validated assessments that are widely used in aging research.
The limitations pertain to the relatively small number of participants reporting NPS. Furthermore, in order to avoid an assumption violation of the logistic regression, we did not run the analyses on all NPS that are listed in Table 2 and Supplementary Table 2 , i.
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Another limitation is that we did not take into account the severity of NPS as assessed by the NPI-Q and instead only examined the presence vs.
For example, a person who has recurrent depression and is successfully treated with antidepressant medication may be symptom-free within 2 weeks of completing the BDI-II questionnaire.
In addition, we did not adjust our analyses for multiple comparisons. However, when considering a Bonferroni correction for Table 3 , the alpha significance level would be 0.
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Thus 10 out of the 17 significant p values still remain significant and none of our major conclusions are affected by the correction. Finally, given the cross-sectional nature of our study, the direction of causality between NPS with amyloid and cognitive status cannot be determined.
Furthermore, they underline the importance of a thorough assessment as well as potential treatment of NPS in the clinical practice, particularly among persons with confirmed neuroimaging biomarker abnormality who are at risk for AD. The findings need to be confirmed by a prospective cohort study.
References 1. Geda, Y.
Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment: a population-based study.Do root vegetables like sweet potatoes count as vegetables or starches, and is it true that all of the nutrition is in the skins? Furthermore, they underline the importance of a thorough assessment as well as potential treatment of NPS in the clinical practice, particularly among persons with confirmed neuroimaging biomarker abnormality who are at risk for AD.
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